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Archive for March, 2008

Monastery from above

An impressive view of the Monastery.

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with Apiciana, the hen in the courtyard….

Happy Easter

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Visitor’s statistics

The Alpine Meadow is the most visited monastery in SL (march 16th 2008).

Statistics

Not bad ūüėČ

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Avete omnes,

Passionn√©e d’histoire et de la Rome antique, SL a √©t√© un excellent outil pour approfondir mes connaissances et vivre une exp√©rience unique, dans un univers virtuel.

Le merveilleux sim ROMA SPQR, me donne¬†la possibilit√©¬†de vivre dans la rome antique et avec un des meilleurs b√Ętisseur de Second Life, Lef Leven, nous avons construit une domus, des latrines publiques, un ludus (√©cole de gladiateur), ¬†ainsi qu’une fullonica, ARS AVETE, nos magasins offrent la possibilit√© d’acqu√©rir des objets d’art ancien.

Le souci du d√©tail et de la ressemblance avec les b√Ętiments et objets d’√©poque, nous ont oblig√©s √† faire de nombreuses recherches. Les peintures murales sur nos √©difices sont reproduites avec autant d’exactitude que peut le permettre le jeu.

L’exposition Nunc Est Bibendum, repr√©sente un projet que j’avais √† coeur depuis longtemps. Arria Perreault, m’a permis de r√©aliser un r√™ve virtuel, et je la remercie.

Par le biais de cette¬†exposition, je voulais¬†d√©montrer, que Second Life, peut √™tre un outil¬†int√©ressant pour la culture, l’enseignement et aussi encourager les personnes √† cr√©er des mus√©es virtuels.

De nombreuses recherches ont √©t√© faites pour¬†les notes explicatives¬†de cette exposition. Je ne pourrais citer toutes les sources, car elles sont nombreuses.¬†Certains textes ont √©t√© traduits, car les informations¬†sur le web √©taient souvent incompl√®tes. L’italien viendra prochainement √©toffer les diff√©rents dossiers de ce projet.

J’esp√®re que vous appr√©cierez mon travail, et que vous viendrez visiter ce merveilleux monast√®re, o√Ļ une poule et un fant√īme vous accueilleront, si je ne suis pas sur les lieux.

N’h√©sitez pas √† m’envoyer un IM, je viendrai vous accueillir avec un AVE digne de l’√©poque romaine….

Salvete

Popea Heron

Les informations pour ce projet ont été obtenues dans les livres et les sites web suivants :
Information for this project was obtained from the following books and websites :
Wikipedia, Encyclopaedia Romana, Legio VI Ferrata Fidelas Constans, Les¬†Grandes¬†Civilisations¬†Rome Reader’s Digest, Rome et l’Empire Romain Les Encyclopes ed. Milan, Firenze Carol The Passionate Olive New York Ballantines Books 2005, Quets¬†Riston¬†Charles Olive Oil New York : DK Publishing 2006¬†i.a. (Harrap’s Compact Dictionary pour les textes traduits par P.H. / for the translations made by P.H.)

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Last night, snow has melted in Alpine Meadow. The CDS citizen have celebrated this event planting trees and dancing around a fire.

Spring

Spring

Spring

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MARCUS GAVIUS APICIUS

Marcus Gavius Apicius (b. 25 BC) is known as a culinary expert and he provided us with information on ancient Roman cuisine.

Apicius was considered to be a strange character who enjoyed “high society” and “living well”.

Known for his sauces and extravagant dishes, he served oddities such as flamingo and nightingale tongues, camel heels, roasted ostrich and stuffed sterile sow’s womb. These dishes were meant to startle the middle class.

We see the same such attempts today with items such as chocolate covered grasshoppers, alligator tail and ostrich.

As Apicius’ finances fell into disarray he feared he could no longer maintain his extravagant and expensive lifestyle and chose to take his own life by poisoning himself.

There are many interesting stories about Apicius. He was ridiculously absurd in his search of the ultimate culinary experience.  Pliny credits Apicius with the idea of force feeding figs to geese to enlarge their livers. This would indicate that the origins of foie gras are Italian instead of French.

It is assumed that this Apicius was responsible for two cookbooks. Apicius’ first book, De condituris, was completely on sauces. This was later absorbed into De re coquinaria, one of the oldest cookbooks found, which was a single volume of various recipes integrated together. This 2nd cookbook was compiled around the 4th century.

RECIPES INSIDE THE WATERMELON

MARCUS GAVIUS APICIUS

Nous connaissons la cuisine romaine gr√Ęce √† Marcus Gavius Apicius, qui v√©cut au d√©but du Ier si√®cle apr√®s J.-C.
Il √©tait connu pour ses excentricit√©s. C‚Äôest de lui que nous viennent des plats √©tranges et des √©pices inconnues dont nous avons gard√© l’id√©e un peu fausse qu’ils repr√©sentaient le luxe de la table romaine :
talons de chameaux, langues de flamants, de rossignols ou de paons, tétines de truie farcies aux oursins.

Ses recettes montrent que les Romains pr√©f√®rent les plats ¬ęmous ¬Ľ : viandes bouillies, boudins‚Ķ La cuisine est √† l‚Äôhuile. Le beurre n‚Äôest utilis√© que comme m√©dicament.

LES RECETTES SE TROUVENT DANS LA PASTEQUE

POPEA HERON

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WINE – LE VIN

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WINE AND ROME
In Italy, grape vines were cultivated both in the north by the Etruscans and in the south by Greek colonists. Wine growing was less important to the Romans, who, in the early years of the Republic, were fighting to expand their domination of the peninsula.

By the middle of the second century BC, however, with the defeat of the Etruscans and the Samnites, Pyrrhus and the Greeks, Philip of Macedonia and the Carthaginians, Rome controlled the Mediterranean, and there were both the wealth and markets to invest in vineyards.

The earliest work on wine and agriculture was written in Punic. After the destruction of Carthage in 146 BC, the Senate decreed that this treatise be translated into Latin, and it subsequently became the source for all Roman writing on viticulture.

Ironically, it was Cato who had insisted on the destruction of Carthage in the Punic wars and who, about 160 BC, wrote De Agri Cultura, the first survey of Roman viticulture, which, significantly, also is the earliest surviving prose work in Latin.

In it, he discusses the production of wine on large slave-based villa estates, which suggests how important vine cultivation had become in an agrarian economy that traditionally was subsistence farming.

Indeed, by 154 BC, says Pliny, wine production in Italy was unsurpassed. That same year, the cultivation of vines was prohibited beyond the Alps, and, for the first two centuries BC, wine was exported to the provinces, especially to Gaul, in exchange for the slaves whose labor was needed to cultivate the large estate vineyards. (In part, the wine trade with Gaul was so extensive because its inhabitants, writes Diodorus Siculus, were besotted by wine, which was drunk unmixed and without moderation).

Mulsum was wine heavily sweetened with honey. Often freely dispensed to the plebs at public events to solicit their political support, the demand for it became so great that it was more profitable to sell wine at home than to export it and, by the first century AD, wine had to be imported from Iberia and Gaul.

In 37 BC, Varro wrote Res Rusticae (“Country Matters”), a manual on farming. His discussion of viticulture is more cursory than Cato’s, but he does say that some grapes produce wines that must be drunk within a year, before they become too bitter, while others, such as Falernian, mature with age and increase in value.

A century later, Pliny was to say the same thing: that nothing experienced a greater increase in value than wine that had been cellered up to twenty years or a greater decrease in value afterwards (XIV.57).

The most comprehensive account of Roman viticulture is by Columella. In De Re Rustica (“On Country Matters”), written around AD 65, he discusses all aspects of the villa system and wine production.

The best wine, he says, is that “which has given pleasure by its own natural quality,” although the pitch that sometimes was used to seal the inside of amphorae is likely to have dissolved in the wine and imparted a resinous taste.

In AD 77, two years before his death while observing the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius, Pliny completed his Natural History. In Book XIV, he reviews the history of wine, its viticulture and vinification. Pliny laments the increased production of cheap wines and the loss of quality vintages. Traditionally, the best wine was reputed to have been Caecuban from Latium, but it no longer existed, the neglected vineyards having been dug up by Nero for the construction of a canal.

Augustus was said to have preferred Setine (although Suetonius says it was Rhaetic from Verona). In Pliny’s time, the best wine was considered to be Falernian, grown on the slopes of Mount Falernus on the border between Latium and Campania.

Next in rank were the wines of the Alban Hills southeast of Rome, and Surrentine and Massic (among others) from the Campania. Finally, there was Mamertine from Messina, first brought into favor by Julius Caesar, who had it served at public banquets.

But it was Falernian that elicits the most praise. Made from the Aminean grape, “a producer of exceedingly good wine,” according to Columella, it was brought to Italy by Greek colonists who first settled at Cumae near the Bay of Naples.

Pliny says that three types were recognized: Caucinian, which was grown on the higher slopes; and then, midway down, Faustian (grown on the estate of Faustus, the son of the dictator Sulla, and regarded as the best and most carefully produced); and, on the lower slopes, Falernian.

Galen is the last to comment on Roman taste in wine. A doctor at a gladiatorial school in Pergamum before becoming, in AD 169, the personal physician to Marcus Aurelius, he had used wine to bathe the wounds of gladiators and to concoct potions of wine and drugs (theriacs) to protect the emperor from poison.

In De Antidotis (“On Antidotes”), he writes that Faustian Falernian had no equal, which was something he discovered by going through the Palatine cellars, beginning with wines at least twenty years old and tasting each vintage until he found the oldest one that still was sweet and had no bitterness.

This would have been served to the emperor in goblets carved of myrrhina (fluorspar) or rock crystal, precious metal or blown glass. (In his Meditations, Aurelius also speaks of Falernian.

As a Stoic he was less impressed with the wine he drank and reminds himself: “Surely it is an excellent plan, when you are seated before delicacies and choice foods, to impress upon your imagination…that the Falernian wine is grape juice.”)

WINE AND ROME II
Distillation was unknown in the ancient world (and would not be discovered until the early middle ages); wine, therefore, was the strongest drink of the Romans.

Vintage wines could be kept for long time because they were stored in amphorae. These were large tapering two-handled clay jars, with a narrow neck that was sealed with cork plastered over with cement, and held approximately 26 liters or almost 7 gallons.

Vines were pruned and tended, and the grapes cut and brought in baskets to be trodden or crushed in the wine press, which the Romans had developed and which produced a second, inferior run.

The must (juice) then underwent fermentation and maturation. Weaker wines were aged in large clay containers (dolia) partially buried in the floor.

More full-bodied wines, such as those from the Campania, were fermented in the open air to promote the oxidation characteristic of a mature wine–exposed, says Pliny, “to the sun, moon, rain and wind” (XIV.136). The wine then was racked (transferred) to amphorae either for storage, sometimes in a warm, smoky loft to promote aging; or for transport, which usually was by boat. (It was cheaper to ship wine from one end of the Mediterranean to the other than to haul it seventy-five miles overland, which is one reason why most vineyards tended to be situated on the coast or near major rivers.)

At the time of Augustus, the taste was for strong, sweet wines, which meant that the grapes were left to ripen on the vine as long as possible, sometimes until the first frost of autumn, so as to concentrate the sugar that could be converted to alcohol.

Boiling also reduced and concentrated the must (defrutum or sapa, depending upon the concentration), which then was used to provide the necessary sugar for the fermentation of weaker wines or to make others sweeter still. (This sweet grape syrup also had potentially dangerous levels of dissolved lead.)

Honey was added as a sweetener, as well, to create mead. Wine also was flavored with spices, resin, or even sea water, all of which helped to act as a preservative or mask sour wine that was turning to vinegar (bacteria oxidizing the alcohol of the wine into acetic acid and ethyl acetate).

Wine almost always was mixed with water for drinking; undiluted wine (merum) was considered the habit of provincials and barbarians.

The Romans usually mixed one part wine to two parts water (sometimes hot or even salted with sea water to cut some of the sweetness).

The Greeks tended to dilute their wine with three or four parts water, which they always mixed by adding the wine. The intention of the symposium was to enjoy the aesthetic pleasure of the wine, to be intoxicated just enough to have the mind released from inhibition and conversation stimulated.

At its Roman counterpart, the convivium, there was a tendency to get drunk more blatantly.

The Campanian coast around Pompeii and the Surrentine peninsula were popular with Romans of wealth and fashion, many of whom had vineyards and villas there. Greek culture still was strong, and its vines were considered among the best in Italy.

Smothered by ash in the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius in AD 79, Pompeii preserves a vivid picture of Roman life at the time. Wine prices were posted and varied for wines of different quality (one, two, three, or four asses per sextarius or pint; by comparison, a loaf of bread cost two asses).

On one wall of one tavern, the price list still can be read, “For one as you can drink wine; for two, you can drink the best; for four, you can drink Falernian.” In fact, genuine Falernian, a wine drunk by emperors, was not likely to have been available. The daily drink usually was red wine not more than a year old, drawn from amphorae stored at the counter, and drunk from earthenware mugs.
The eruption of Vesuvius destroyed some of the best vineyards in Italy. Growers replanted everywhere they could, at times even replacing fields sown for grain.

By the time Pliny wrote in the first century AD, Iberia was an important producer of wine, and wine first was beginning to be imported from Gaul, with new vines being planted at Narbonensis in the south (viticulture would spread northward and new vines introduced that were more suitable to the region, one of which was the biturica, the ancestor of cabernet varieties). Eventually, there was a glut. With the intention of preserving the supply of grain and, possibly, to protect the domestic wine industry, Domitian banned, in an edict of AD 92, the planting of any new vineyards in Italy and ordered the removal of half the vines in the provinces.

When, in AD 212, Caracalla conferred citizenship on all free inhabitants of the empire (the Constitutio Antoniniana), it eliminated the privilege of cultivating vines that had been the prerogative of Roman citizens. Now, all those in the provinces were permitted to grow wine grapes.

In AD 280, the edict which Domitian had imposed almost two hundred years earlier was revoked, although it may never have been enforced in the first place. Any restrictions on the development of viticulture now were completely removed

ROMAN WINES

POSCA

A sour vinegar like wine (acetum) mixed with water to reduce the bitterness and generally available to soldiers and lower classes.

Posca was a type of beverage popular among the Roman legions. It was made from wine that had begun to go sour and turn into vinegar.

This was diluted with water and occasionally sweetened with honey. Roman legionaries considered posca to be quite refreshing.
PASSUM, DEFRUTUM AND CARENUM

Passum

Raisin wine. Obviously made from nearly completely dried grapes. It’s most prized variety was imported from Crete

Defrutum is a reduction of must used by cooks and others in ancient Rome. It was made by boiling down grape juice or must (freshly squeezed grapes) in large kettles until it had been reduced by at least half (1/3 for carenum wine).

The sweetest defrutum was further boiled down into an even stronger concentrate called sapa.
 
MUSLUM

A common class wine, generally sweetened with honey and served to Plebes and the lower classes at public events.

Mulsum was usually served with hors-d’oeuvres. Regular consumption of mulsum was thought to stimulate appetite, aid digestion and even to prolong life.

Drinking it warm was supposed to help people overcome failure. A variant of Muslum is when honey is added while the wine is still fermenting.
FALERNIAN

A highly prized wine, available mainly to the upper classes. It was made from the Aminean grape originating near Naples, but transfered to Mt. Falernus between Latium and Campania.

These vines grew best around elm trees. It produced a full-bodied drink that was best when aged between 10 and 20 years, and had a near yeast killing alcohol content of up to 16%.

Pliny recorded that Falernian from the famed Opimian vintage of 121 BC was served at a banquet in 60 BC honoring Julius Caesar for his conquest of Spain.
The Roman poet Catullus extolled the virtues of Falernian in one of his poems :

Come, boy, you who serve out the old Falernian,
fill up stronger cups for me,
as the law of Postumia, mistress of the revels, ordains,

Postumia more tipsy than the tipsy grape.
But water, begone, away with you, water,
destruction of wine, and take up abode
with scrupulous folk. This is the pure Thyonian god.
SETINUM

A strong, sweet Italian wine of Latium considered perhaps the best of wines. It was the favored wine of Augustus hailing from the hills of Setia.

However, Setinum seems to have fallen into disfavor and became nearly extinct due to miscultivation and the canal of Nero that was dug out directly in this grapes natural habitat.
CAECUBAN

Another sweet wine of Latium. Before the imperial period, this seems to have been the most prized grape variety. This grape too, seems to have suffered under Nero’s canal.

To many in the first century BC Caecuban was the best of all wines, smoother than Falernian wine, fuller than Alban wine, strong and intoxicating. It was a white wine which turned fire-coloured as it aged.
MASSIC

Another product of Naples vines. It was considered a harsh wine.
 

MAMERTINE

This wine hailed from Sicily and was made fashionable by Julius Caesar. He served it often as his various public events and triumphs. The finest of this type was called Potalanum
LORA (Vinum Operarium)   

A bitter wine made from the grape skin husks, seeds and any other product left over from the pressing process. Fermented by soaking in water, it was generally served to slaves, though some lower classes, and even soldiers may have had access to wines that were hardly any better.

Varro, however claimed that it was the drink of old women. Today these excess grape products are used in distilling the liquor Grappa.

LE VIN
Premi√®re source de richesse de l’Italie, le vin fut abondamment d√©crit par les agronomes de l’√©poque.
Ils nous apprennent que les ceps √©taient plant√©s dans tous terrains, sous des climats et expositions les plus divers et que c’est de vignes conduites sur des arbres comme l’olivier que proviennent les grands crus; les Romains consid√©raient qu’un v√©ritable mariage se r√©alisait, l’arbre transmettant sa force √† la vigne.

Nous savons aussi que l’on cultivait sur √©chalas, √† hauteur d’homme, que l’on ne m√©langeait pas les esp√®ces et qu’on ne les faisait pas voisiner avec des cultures comme celles du radis, du chou, du laurier et du noisetier car, d’apr√®s les Anciens, “la vigne, on le sait, est dou√©e d’odorat et prend √©tonnamment les odeurs, et au voisinage d’un parfum ennemi, se d√©tourne, recule et le fuit”.

La conservation du vin s’av√©rait difficile d’autant plus qu’on ignorait tout du soutirage.

C’√©taient les amphores qui √©taient les plus aptes √† le conserver de nombreuses ann√©es.

Ces r√©cipients √©taient enduits de poix pour assurer leur √©tanch√©it√©, et entour√©s de paille ou de jonc tress√© pour les prot√©ger. Une fois remplies, un bouchon de li√®ge ou de terre cuite fermait les amphores et on les scellait √† la poix, argile ou pl√Ętre avant d’y apposer un cachet.

D’apr√®s Pline, c’est au IIe s. av. J.-C. qu’apparaissent les premi√®res caves: les apoth√®ques (apotheca).

Contrairement √† nos m√©thodes contemporaines, les Romains pla√ßaient leurs apoth√®ques souvent au-dessus de pi√®ces chauff√©es dans un lieu expos√© √† la fum√©e (fumarium), o√Ļ on y proc√©dait, √† environ 60¬į, √† une v√©ritable pasteurisation qui limitait les ph√©nom√®nes qui alt√®rent les vins qu’on laisse √©voluer librement.

On pla√ßait ensuite les vins dans d’autres compartiments de l’apoth√®que dans une atmosph√®re un peu moins chaude, propice √† leur vieillissement.Chaque ann√©e les amphores plus jeunes venaient se placer devant les plus anciennes. Pline parle d’un certain Hortensius qui laissa √† ses h√©ritiers plus de 10.000 amphores de vin; c’est dire que de v√©ritables fortunes en vins pr√©cieux se constituaient dans certaines apoth√®ques.

Cependant si les vins les plus pris√©s √©taient bus vieux et si des exemples extr√™mes de conservation sont relat√©s, beaucoup d’entre eux perdaient leurs qualit√©s pass√© une vingtaine d’ann√©es.

Pour renforcer des vins faibles ou rechercher des ar√īmes diff√©rents, de nombreux produits √©taient rajout√©s: sel et poivre, miel, r√©sine, plantes ou graines parfum√©es‚Ķ

L’agronome Columelle cite trois adjuvants: le fenugrec qui donne une saveur de noix, la racine d’iris qui apporte un parfum de rose et de violette et un troisi√®me, inconnu, d√©sign√© sous le terme “d’herbe √† chameaux”.

Ces ar√īmes √©taient ajout√©s lors de la fermentation en dolia, ou plus tard, lors de leur mise en amphores, voire de leur d√©gustation. Ils entraient dans la fabrication d’un vin ambr√© appel√© turriculae

Les vins n’√©taient pas bus purs; on les “coupait” avec de l’eau, pratique qui subsistera d’ailleurs longtemps apr√®s les Romains.

Les riches maisonn√©es poss√©daient souvent des glaci√®res dans les sous-sols, aliment√©es en hiver de blocs de glace que l’on conservait dans de la paille. Cela permettait de servir certains vins, comme le mulsum, frais, en le servant dans de la glace pil√©e ou en le faisant couler sur de la glace.

Le vinaigre

Le vinaigre est un vin dont l’alcool a √©t√© transform√© en acide ac√©tique par un germe appel√© “mycoderma aceti”. Le vinaigre est connu depuis la plus haute Antiquit√©; les Grecs s’en servaient avec de l’huile pour assaisonner des viandes bouillies.

Les Romains en faisaient √©galement grand usage, sous le nom de posca et allong√© d’eau, il d√©salt√©rait les l√©gions de C√©sar.

L’Orient appr√©ciait cette boisson dite hygi√©nique, tonique et rafra√ģchissante.

Emerveill√© par tant de vertus, le Moyen-Age le mit √† toutes les sauces et bient√īt le vinaigre fut partout: en cuisine, car il rehausse le go√Ľt des aliments et aide √† les conserver.

En médecine, il facilite la digestion et possède des propriétés antiseptiques.

LE VIN

Les romains fabriquaient plusieurs sortes de vins: le vin de paille (vinum passum), le vin miell√© (vinum mulsum), les vins artificiels √† base d’absinthe, √† la rose, √† la violette, au poivre qui servaient d’ap√©ritifs ou de m√©dicaments, les vins de fruits (coins, grenades …) et le vinaigre coup√© d’eau (boisson du l√©gionnaire).

Les romains qui aimaient le vin le buvaient de pr√©f√©rence frais et g√©n√©ralement coup√© d’eau.

Le prix du vin n’√©tait pas tr√®s √©lev√©. Les crus les plus r√©put√©s provenaient de Capoue, de Pomp√©i, de Messine et surtout de Falerne. Les vins ferment√©s √©taient interdits aux femmes.

LE VIN LORS DES BANQUETS

Les amphores sont d√©bouch√©es pendant le repas. Le vin est vers√© dans un crat√®re. Il est filtr√© avec une passoire car il contient beaucoup de d√©p√īt.

Les Romains y ajoutent un √† deux tiers d‚Äôeau fra√ģche ou au contraire, ti√®de ; parfois m√™me de l‚Äôeau de mer.

Le vin peut être parfumé à la rose, mais le plus apprécié est le vin au miel. Ce sont les ministratores (serviteurs) qui remplissent les coupes.

LES DIFFERENTES SORTES DE VINS

POSCA

Dans l’Antiquit√© romaine, la posca √©tait un vin amer compos√© en fait de vinaigre allong√© d’eau et parfois adouci au jaune d’Ňďuf.

√Ä l’origine, la posca √©tait bien du vin, mais du fait de mauvaises m√©thodes de conservation, elle se transformait rapidement en vinaigre.

Elle √©tait alors coup√©e d’eau, ce qui la rendait plus d√©salt√©rante et permettait de r√©aliser des √©conomies.

Comme le vin, la posca était commercialisée, sans doute à grande échelle, dans des tonneaux et des outres, voire transportée en vrac dans de gros dolia (amphores de très grande taille) par voie maritime.

Cette boisson bon march√©, r√©put√©e tr√®s rafra√ģchissante, √©tait essentiellement servie aux l√©gionnaires, au peuple et aux esclaves.

Chez les légionnaires, la posca était transportée dans une fiole accrochée à la ceinture.
La posca n’√©tait pas consid√©r√© comme un vin de plaisir mais √©tait tr√®s appr√©ci√©e parce qu’elle coupait efficacement la soif. De plus, cette boisson avait semble-t-il des vertus antiseptiques.

Ce qui √©tait d’usage chez les soldats durant l’Antiquit√©, c’√©tait d’ajouter des “drogues” √† ce vinaigre. Soit de la myrrhe (le sopor), soit du fiel, ce qui √©tait sens√© att√©nuer les souffrances.
PASSUM, DEFRITUM ET CARENUM

Le passum, c’est notre vin de paille, un vin doux obtenu naturellement en pressant des raisins s√©ch√©s sur des claies, ou laiss√©s √† confire sur le cep.

Defritum et carenum sont couramment utilis√©s dans les recettes mais n’apparaissent pas dans les coupes des convives. Ces deux produits, plus proches d’un sirop que d’un vin √©pais, √©taient obtenus apr√®s avoir fait cuire le mo√Ľt, jus du raisin venant d’√™tre press√©, qu’on √©cumait et qu’on faisait √©paissir jusqu’√† r√©duction de moiti√© pour le defritum, d’un tiers pour le carenum.
LE MUSLUM

Le Mulsum, litt√©ralement “miell√©”, √©tait un vin tr√®s appr√©ci√© des grecs, puis des romains. Sa r√©putation √©tait grande, et il √©tait pr√©f√©r√© au “gustatio”, c‚Äôest-√†-dire √† l‚Äôap√©ritif.

Plusieurs auteurs en décrivent la préparation ou les vertus.

Columelle : ¬ę Tirez de la cuve sans attendre du vin m√®re goutte, c‚Äôest √† dire celui qui aura coul√© avant que le raisin n‚Äôait √©t√© trop fortement foul√©. Mais faites ce mo√Ľt avec du raisin de vigne arbustive cueilli par temps sec. Vous verserez dans une urne de mo√Ľt dix livres d‚Äôexcellent miel et, apr√®s avoir m√©lang√© soigneusement, vous en remplirez un flacon que vous fermerez imm√©diatement au pl√Ętre et placerez √† l‚Äô√©tage. Au bout de vingt-et-un jours, il faudra ouvrir le flacon, d√©canter le mo√Ľt dans un autre vase que l‚Äôon lutera, et le replacer √† la fum√©e. ¬Ľ
FALERNE

De tous les vins, c’est le Falerne qui √©tait le plus appr√©ci√©: le plus ancien des grands crus de l’Italie poss√©dait ses mill√©simes. La fameuse cuv√©e de l’ann√©e du consulat d’Opimius, en 121 avant J.-C., est rest√©e longtemps c√©l√®bre. On en parlait encore du temps de Pline, 170 ans apr√®s !
LE SETIN

Le Setin, vin de première qualité mais plus léger et moins enivrant que le Falerne.

LE CAECUBAN (CECUBE)

Un autre vin doux du Latium, le Caecuban, avait la reputation pour sa variété de grappes, malheureusement, le vignoble a fort souffert à cause de la construction d’un canal ordonné par Neron.
LE MASSIQUE

Le Massique est un autre vin de la région de Naples. Il était réputé comme un vin très sévère.
LE MAMERTINE

Le Mamertine était le vin préféré de Jules César. Il le servait lors d’événements publics et lors de triomphes.
 

Popea Heron

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